Upgrade Guide

Upgrading To 5.3.0 From 5.2

Estimated Upgrade Time: 2-3 Hours

{note} We attempt to document every possible breaking change. Since some of these breaking changes are in obscure parts of the framework only a portion of these changes may actually affect your application.


Laravel 5.3 requires PHP 5.6.4 or higher. HHVM is no longer officially supported as it does not contain the same language features as PHP 5.6+.


All of the deprecations listed in the Laravel 5.2 upgrade guide have been removed from the framework. You should review this list to verify you are no longer using these deprecated features.

Application Service Providers

You may remove the arguments from the boot method on the EventServiceProvider and RouteServiceProvider classes. Any calls to the given arguments may be converted to use the equivalent facade instead. So, for example, instead of calling methods on the $dispatcher argument, you may simply call the Event facade. Likewise, instead of making method calls to the $router argument, you may make calls to the Route facade.

{note} When converting method calls to facades, be sure to import the facade class into your service provider.


Key / Value Order Change

The first, last, and where methods on the Arr class now pass the "value" as the first parameter to the given callback Closure. For example:

Arr::first(function ($value, $key) {
    return ! is_null($value);

In previous versions of Laravel, the $key was passed first. Since most use cases are only interested in the $value it is now passed first. You should do a "global find" in your application for these methods to verify that you are expecting the $value to be passed as the first argument to your Closure.


The make:console Command

The make:console command has been renamed to make:command.


Authentication Scaffolding

The two default authentication controllers provided with the framework have been split into four smaller controllers. This change provides cleaner, more focused authentication controllers by default. The easiest way to upgrade your application to the new authentication controllers is to grab a fresh copy of each controller from GitHub and place them into your application.

You should also make sure that you are calling the Auth::routes() method in your routes/web.php file. This method will register the proper routes for the new authentication controllers.

Once these controllers have been placed into your application, you may need to re-implement any customizations you made to these controllers. For example, if you are customizing the authentication guard that is used for authentication, you may need to override the controller's guard method. You can examine each authentication controller's trait to determine which methods to override.

{tip} If you were not customizing the authentication controllers, you should just be able to drop in fresh copies of the controllers from GitHub and verify that you are calling the Auth::routes method in your routes/web.php file.

Password Reset Emails

Password reset emails now use the new Laravel notifications feature. If you would like to customize the notification sent when sending password reset links, you should override the sendPasswordResetNotification method of the Illuminate\Auth\Passwords\CanResetPassword trait.

Your User model must use the new Illuminate\Notifications\Notifiable trait in order for password reset link emails to be delivered:


namespace App;

use Illuminate\Notifications\Notifiable;
use Illuminate\Foundation\Auth\User as Authenticatable;

class User extends Authenticatable
    use Notifiable;

{note} Don't forget to register the Illuminate\Notifications\NotificationServiceProvider in the providers array of your config/app.php configuration file.

POST To Logout

The Auth::routes method now registers a POST route for /logout instead of a GET route. This prevents other web applications from logging your users out of your application. To upgrade, you should either convert your logout requests to use the POST verb or register your own GET route for the /logout URI:

Route::get('/logout', 'Auth\LoginController@logout');


Calling Policy Methods With Class Names

Some policy methods only receive the currently authenticated user and not an instance of the model they authorize. This situation is most common when authorizing create actions. For example, if you are creating a blog, you may wish to check if a user is authorized to create any posts at all.

When defining policy methods that will not receive a model instance, such as a create method, the class name will no longer be passed as the second argument to the method. Your method should just expect the authenticated user instance:

 * Determine if the given user can create posts.
 * @param  \App\User  $user
 * @return bool
public function create(User $user)

The AuthorizesResources Trait

The AuthorizesResources trait has been merged with the AuthorizesRequests trait. You should remove the AuthorizesResources trait from your app/Http/Controllers/Controller.php file.


Custom Directives

In prior versions of Laravel, when registering custom Blade directives using the directive method, the $expression passed to your directive callback contained the outer-most parenthesis. In Laravel 5.3, these outer-most parenthesis are not included in the expression passed to your directive callback. Be sure to review the Blade extension documentation and verify your custom Blade directives are still working properly.


Service Provider

Laravel 5.3 includes significant improvements to event broadcasting. You should add the new BroadcastServiceProvider to your app/Providers directory by grabbing a fresh copy of the source from GitHub. Once you have defined the new service provider, you should add it to the providers array of your config/app.php configuration file.


Extension Closure Binding & $this

When calling the Cache::extend method with a Closure, $this will be bound to the CacheManager instance, allowing you to call its methods from within your extension Closure:

Cache::extend('memcached', function ($app, $config) {
    try {
        return $this->createMemcachedDriver($config);
    } catch (Exception $e) {
        return $this->createNullDriver($config);


If you are using Cashier, you should upgrade your laravel/cashier package to the ~7.0 release. This release of Cashier only upgrades a few internal methods to be compatible with Laravel 5.3 and is not a breaking change.


Key / Value Order Change

The first, last, and contains collection methods all pass the "value" as the first parameter to their given callback Closure. For example:

$collection->first(function ($value, $key) {
    return ! is_null($value);

In previous versions of Laravel, the $key was passed first. Since most use cases are only interested in the $value it is now passed first. You should do a "global find" in your application for these methods to verify that you are expecting the $value to be passed as the first argument to your Closure.

where Comparison Now "Loose" By Default

The where method now performs a "loose" comparison by default instead of a strict comparison. If you would like to perform a strict comparison, you may use the whereStrict method.

The where method also no longer accepts a third parameter to indicate "strictness". You should explicit call either where or whereStrict depending on your application's needs.



The fluent query builder now returns Illuminate\Support\Collection instances instead of plain arrays. This brings consistency to the result types returned by the fluent query builder and Eloquent.

If you do not want to migrate your query builder results to Collection instances, you may chain the all method onto your calls to the query builder's get method. This will return a plain PHP array of the results, allowing you to maintain backwards compatibility:

$users = DB::table('users')->get()->all();

Eloquent $morphClass Property

The $morphClass property that could be defined on Eloquent models has been removed in favor of defining a "morph map". Defining a morph map provides support for eager loading and resolves additional bugs with polymorphic relations. If you were previously relying on the $morphClass property, you should migrate to morphMap using the following syntax:

    'YourCustomMorphName' => YourModel::class,

For example, if you previously defined the following $morphClass:

class User extends Model
    protected $morphClass = 'user'

You should define the following morphMap in the boot method of your AppServiceProvider:

use Illuminate\Database\Eloquent\Relations\Relation;

    'user' => User::class,

Eloquent save Method

The Eloquent save method now returns false if the model has not been changed since the last time it was retrieved or saved.

Eloquent Scopes

Eloquent scopes now respect the leading boolean of scope constraints. For example, if you are starting your scope with an orWhere constraint it will no longer be converted to normal where. If you were relying on this feature (e.g. adding multiple orWhere constraints within a loop), you should verify that the first condition is a normal where to avoid any boolean logic issues.

If your scopes begin with where constraints no action is required. Remember, you can verify your query SQL using the toSql method of a query:

User::where('foo', 'bar')->toSql();

Join Clause

The JoinClause class has been rewritten to unify its syntax with the query builder. The optional $where parameter of the on clause has been removed. To add a "where" conditions you should explicitly use one of the where methods offered by the query builder:

$query->join('table', function ($join) {
    $join->on('foo', 'bar')->where('bar', 'baz');

The $bindings property was also removed. To manipulate join bindings directly you may use the addBinding method:

$query->join(DB::raw('('.$subquery->toSql().') table'), function ($join) use ($subquery) {
    $join->addBinding($subquery->getBindings(), 'join');


Mcrypt Encrypter Has Been Removed

The Mcrypt encrypter was deprecated during the Laravel 5.1.0 release in June 2015. This encrypter has been totally removed in the 5.3.0 release in favor of the newer encryption implementation based on OpenSSL, which has been the default encryption scheme for all releases since Laravel 5.1.0.

If you are still using an Mcrypt based cipher in your config/app.php configuration file, you should update the cipher to AES-256-CBC and set your key to a random 32 byte string which may be securely generated using php artisan key:generate.

If you are storing encrypted data in your database using the Mcrypt encrypter, you may install the laravel/legacy-encrypter package which includes the legacy Mcrypt encrypter implementation. You should use this package to decrypt your encrypted data and re-encrypt it using the new OpenSSL encrypter. For example, you may do something like the following in a custom Artisan command:

$legacy = new McryptEncrypter($encryptionKey);

foreach ($records as $record) {
    $record->encrypted = encrypt(


Exception Handler


The base exception handler class now requires a Illuminate\Container\Container instance to be passed to its constructor. This change will only affect your application if you have defined a custom __construct method in your app/Exception/Handler.php file. If you have done this, you should pass a container instance into the parent::__construct method:



can Middleware Namespace Change

The can middleware listed in the $routeMiddleware property of your HTTP kernel should be updated to the following class:

'can' => \Illuminate\Auth\Middleware\Authorize::class,

can Middleware Authentication Exception

The can middleware will now throw an instance of Illuminate\Auth\AuthenticationException if the user is not authenticated. If you were manually catching a different exception type, you should update your application to catch this exception. In most cases, this change will not affect your application.

Binding Substitution Middleware

Route model binding is now accomplished using middleware. All applications should add the Illuminate\Routing\Middleware\SubstituteBindings to your web middleware group in your app/Http/Kernel.php file:


You should also register a route middleware for binding substitution in the $routeMiddleware property of your HTTP kernel:

'bindings' => \Illuminate\Routing\Middleware\SubstituteBindings::class,

Once this route middleware has been registered, you should add it to the api middleware group:

'api' => [



Laravel 5.3 includes a new, driver based notification system. You should register the Illuminate\Notifications\NotificationServiceProvider in the providers array of your config/app.php configuration file.

You should also add the Illuminate\Support\Facades\Notification facade to the aliases array of your config/app.php configuration file.

Finally, you may use the Illuminate\Notifications\Notifiable trait on your User model or any other model you wish to receive notifications.



Customizing the paginator's generated HTML is much easier in Laravel 5.3 compared to previous Laravel 5.x releases. Instead of defining a "Presenter" class, you only need to define a simple Blade template. The easiest way to customize the pagination views is by exporting them to your resources/views/vendor directory using the vendor:publish command:

php artisan vendor:publish --tag=laravel-pagination

This command will place the views in the resources/views/vendor/pagination directory. The default.blade.php file within this directory corresponds to the default pagination view. Simply edit this file to modify the pagination HTML.

Be sure to review the full pagination documentation for more information.



In your queue configuration, all expire configuration items should be renamed to retry_after. Likewise, the Beanstalk configuration's ttr item should be renamed to retry_after. This name change provides more clarity on the purpose of this configuration option.


Queueing closures is no longer supported. If you are queueing a Closure in your application, you should convert the Closure to a class and queue an instance of the class instead.

Collection Serialization

The Illuminate\Queue\SerializesModels trait now properly serializes instances of Illuminate\Database\Eloquent\Collection. This will most likely not be a breaking change for the vast majority of applications; however, if your application is absolutely dependent on collections not being re-retrieved from the database by queued jobs, you should verify that this change does not negatively affect your application.

Daemon Workers

It is no longer necessary to specify the --daemon option when calling the queue:work Artisan command. Running the php artisan queue:work command will automatically assume that you want to run the worker in daemon mode. If you would like to process a single job, you may use the --once option on the command:

// Start a daemon queue worker...
php artisan queue:work

// Process a single job...
php artisan queue:work --once

Event Data Changes

Various queue job events such as JobProcessing and JobProcessed no longer contain the $data property. You should update your application to call $event->job->payload() to get the equivalent data.

Jobs Table

If you are using the database driver, you should drop the jobs_queue_reserved_reserved_at_index index then drop the reserved column from your jobs table. This column is no longer required when using the database driver. Once you have completed these changes, you should add a new compound index on the queue and reserved_at column.

Failed Jobs Table

If your application has a failed_jobs table, you should add an exception column to the table. The exception column should be a TEXT type column and will be used to store a string representation of the exception that caused the job to fail.

Serializing Models On Legacy Style Queue Jobs

Typically, jobs in Laravel are queued by passing a new job instance to the Queue::push method. However, some applications may be queuing jobs using the following legacy syntax:


If you are queueing jobs using this syntax, Eloquent models will no longer be automatically serialized and re-retrieved by the queue. If you would like your Eloquent models to be automatically serialized by the queue, you should use the Illuminate\Queue\SerializesModels trait on your job class and queue the job using the new push syntax:

Queue::push(new ClassName);


Resource Parameters Are Singular By Default

In previous versions of Laravel, route parameters registered using Route::resource were not "singularized". This could lead to some unexpected behavior when registering route model bindings. For example, given the following Route::resource call:

Route::resource('photos', 'PhotoController');

The URI for the show route would be defined as follows:


In Laravel 5.3, all resource route parameters are singularized by default. So, the same call to Route::resource would register the following URI:


If you would like to maintain the previous behavior instead of automatically singularizing resource route parameters, you may make the following call to the singularResourceParameters method in your AppServiceProvider:

use Illuminate\Support\Facades\Route;


Resource Route Names No Longer Affected By Prefixes

URL prefixes no longer affect the route names assigned to routes when using Route::resource, since this behavior defeated the entire purpose of using route names in the first place.

If your application is using Route::resource within a Route::group call that specified a prefix option, you should examine all of your calls to the route helper and verify that you are no longer appending the URI prefix to the route name.

If this change causes you to have two routes with the same name, you may use the names option when calling Route::resource to specify a custom name for a given route. Refer to the resource routing documentation for more information.


Form Request Exceptions

If a form request's validation fails, Laravel will now throw an instance of Illuminate\Validation\ValidationException instead of an instance of HttpException. If you are manually catching the HttpException instance thrown by a form request, you should update your catch blocks to catch the ValidationException instead.

Nullable Primitives

When validating arrays, booleans, integers, numerics, and strings, null will no longer be considered a valid value unless the rule set contains the new nullable rule:

Validate::make($request->all(), [
    'string' => 'nullable|max:5',

Upgrading To 5.2.0 From 5.1

Estimated Upgrade Time: Less Than 1 Hour

{note} We attempt to provide a very comprehensive listing of every possible breaking change made to the framework. However, many of these changes may not apply to your own application.

Updating Dependencies

Update your composer.json file to point to laravel/framework 5.2.*.

Add "symfony/dom-crawler": "~3.0" and "symfony/css-selector": "~3.0" to the require-dev section of your composer.json file.


Configuration File

You should update your config/auth.php configuration file with the following: https://github.com/laravel/laravel/blob/master/config/auth.php

Once you have updated the file with a fresh copy, set your authentication configuration options to their desired value based on your old configuration file. If you were using the typical, Eloquent based authentication services available in Laravel 5.1, most values should remain the same.

Take special note of the passwords.users.email configuration option in the new auth.php configuration file and verify that the view path matches the actual view path for your application, as the default path to this view was changed in Laravel 5.2. If the default value in the new configuration file does not match your existing view, update the configuration option.


If you are implementing the Illuminate\Contracts\Auth\Authenticatable contract but are not using the Authenticatable trait, you should add a new getAuthIdentifierName method to your contract implementation. Typically, this method will return the column name of the "primary key" of your authenticatable entity. For example: id.

This is unlikely to affect your application unless you were manually implementing this interface.

Custom Drivers

If you are using the Auth::extend method to define a custom method of retrieving users, you should now use Auth::provider to define your custom user provider. Once you have defined the custom provider, you may configure it in the providers array of your new auth.php configuration file.

For more information on custom authentication providers, consult the full authentication documentation.


The loginPath() method has been removed from Illuminate\Foundation\Auth\AuthenticatesUsers, so placing a $loginPath variable in your AuthController is no longer required. By default, the trait will always redirect users back to their previous location on authentication errors.


The Illuminate\Auth\Access\UnauthorizedException has been renamed to Illuminate\Auth\Access\AuthorizationException. This is unlikely to affect your application if you are not manually catching this exception.


Eloquent Base Collections

The Eloquent collection instance now returns a base Collection (Illuminate\Support\Collection) for the following methods: pluck, keys, zip, collapse, flatten, flip.

Key Preservation

The slice, chunk, and reverse methods now preserve keys on the collection. If you do not want these methods to preserve keys, use the values method on the Collection instance.

Composer Class

The Illuminate\Foundation\Composer class has been moved to Illuminate\Support\Composer. This is unlikely to affect your application if you were not manually using this class.

Commands And Handlers

Self-Handling Commands

You no longer need to implement the SelfHandling contract on your jobs / commands. All jobs are now self-handling by default, so you can remove this interface from your classes.

Separate Commands & Handlers

The Laravel 5.2 command bus now only supports self-handling commands and no longer supports separate commands and handlers.

If you would like to continue using separate commands and handlers, you may install a Laravel Collective package which provides backwards-compatible support for this: https://github.com/LaravelCollective/bus


Environment Value

Add an env configuration option to your app.php configuration file that looks like the following:

'env' => env('APP_ENV', 'production'),

Caching And Env

If you are using the config:cache command during deployment, you must make sure that you are only calling the env function from within your configuration files, and not from anywhere else in your application.

If you are calling env from within your application, it is strongly recommended you add proper configuration values to your configuration files and call env from that location instead, allowing you to convert your env calls to config calls.

Compiled Classes

If present, remove the following lines from config/compile.php in the files array:


Not doing so can trigger an error when running php artisan optimize if the service providers listed here do not exist.

CSRF Verification

CSRF verification is no longer automatically performed when running unit tests. This is unlikely to affect your application.


MySQL Dates

Starting with MySQL 5.7, 0000-00-00 00:00:00 is no longer considered a valid date, since strict mode is enabled by default. All timestamp columns should receive a valid default value when you insert records into your database. You may use the useCurrent method in your migrations to default the timestamp columns to the current timestamps, or you may make the timestamps nullable to allow null values:




MySQL JSON Column Type

The json column type now creates actual JSON columns when used by the MySQL driver. If you are not running MySQL 5.7 or above, this column type will not be available to you. Instead, use the text column type in your migration.


When running database seeds, all Eloquent models are now unguarded by default. Previously a call to Model::unguard() was required. You can call Model::reguard() at the top of your DatabaseSeeder class if you would like models to be guarded during seeding.


Date Casts

Any attributes that have been added to your $casts property as date or datetime will now be converted to a string when toArray is called on the model or collection of models. This makes the date casting conversion consistent with dates specified in your $dates array.

Global Scopes

The global scopes implementation has been re-written to be much easier to use. Your global scopes no longer need a remove method, so it may be removed from any global scopes you have written.

If you were calling getQuery on an Eloquent query builder to access the underlying query builder instance, you should now call toBase.

If you were calling the remove method directly for any reason, you should change this call to $eloquentBuilder->withoutGlobalScope($scope).

New methods withoutGlobalScope and withoutGlobalScopes have been added to the Eloquent query builder. Any calls to $model->removeGlobalScopes($builder) may be changed to simply $builder->withoutGlobalScopes().

Primary keys

By default, Eloquent assumes your primary keys are integers and will automatically cast them to integers. For any primary key that is not an integer you should override the $incrementing property on your Eloquent model to false:

 * Indicates if the IDs are auto-incrementing.
 * @var bool
public $incrementing = true;


Core Event Objects

Some of the core events fired by Laravel now use event objects instead of string event names and dynamic parameters. Below is a list of the old event names and their new object based counterparts:

Old New
artisan.start Illuminate\Console\Events\ArtisanStarting
auth.attempting Illuminate\Auth\Events\Attempting
auth.login Illuminate\Auth\Events\Login
auth.logout Illuminate\Auth\Events\Logout
cache.missed Illuminate\Cache\Events\CacheMissed
cache.hit Illuminate\Cache\Events\CacheHit
cache.write Illuminate\Cache\Events\KeyWritten
cache.delete Illuminate\Cache\Events\KeyForgotten
connection.{name}.beginTransaction Illuminate\Database\Events\TransactionBeginning
connection.{name}.committed Illuminate\Database\Events\TransactionCommitted
connection.{name}.rollingBack Illuminate\Database\Events\TransactionRolledBack
illuminate.query Illuminate\Database\Events\QueryExecuted
illuminate.queue.before Illuminate\Queue\Events\JobProcessing
illuminate.queue.after Illuminate\Queue\Events\JobProcessed
illuminate.queue.failed Illuminate\Queue\Events\JobFailed
illuminate.queue.stopping Illuminate\Queue\Events\WorkerStopping
mailer.sending Illuminate\Mail\Events\MessageSending
router.matched Illuminate\Routing\Events\RouteMatched

Each of these event objects contains exactly the same parameters that were passed to the event handler in Laravel 5.1. For example, if you were using DB::listen in 5.1., you may update your code like so for 5.2.:

DB::listen(function ($event) {

You may check out each of the new event object classes to see their public properties.

Exception Handling

Your App\Exceptions\Handler class' $dontReport property should be updated to include at least the following exception types:

use Illuminate\Validation\ValidationException;
use Illuminate\Auth\Access\AuthorizationException;
use Illuminate\Database\Eloquent\ModelNotFoundException;
use Symfony\Component\HttpKernel\Exception\HttpException;

 * A list of the exception types that should not be reported.
 * @var array
protected $dontReport = [

Helper Functions

The url() helper function now returns a Illuminate\Routing\UrlGenerator instance when no path is provided.

Implicit Model Binding

Laravel 5.2 includes "implicit model binding", a convenient new feature to automatically inject model instances into routes and controllers based on the identifier present in the URI. However, this does change the behavior of routes and controllers that type-hint model instances.

If you were type-hinting a model instance in your route or controller and were expecting an empty model instance to be injected, you should remove this type-hint and create an empty model instance directly within your route or controller; otherwise, Laravel will attempt to retrieve an existing model instance from the database based on the identifier present in the route's URI.


The IronMQ queue driver has been moved into its own package and is no longer shipped with the core framework.


Jobs / Queue

The php artisan make:job command now creates a "queued" job class definition by default. If you would like to create a "sync" job, use the --sync option when issuing the command.


The pretend mail configuration option has been removed. Instead, use the log mail driver, which performs the same function as pretend and logs even more information about the mail message.


To be consistent with other URLs generated by the framework, the paginator URLs no longer contain a trailing slash. This is unlikely to affect your application.

Service Providers

The Illuminate\Foundation\Providers\ArtisanServiceProvider should be removed from your service provider list in your app.php configuration file.

The Illuminate\Routing\ControllerServiceProvider should be removed from your service provider list in your app.php configuration file.


Because of changes to the authentication system, any existing sessions will be invalidated when you upgrade to Laravel 5.2.

Database Session Driver

A new database session driver has been written for the framework which includes more information about the user such as their user ID, IP address, and user-agent. If you would like to continue using the old driver you may specify the legacy-database driver in your session.php configuration file.

If you would like to use the new driver, you should add the user_id (nullable integer), ip_address (nullable string), and user_agent (text) columns to your session database table.


The "Stringy" library is no longer included with the framework. You may install it manually via Composer if you wish to use it in your application.


Exception Types

The ValidatesRequests trait now throws an instance of Illuminate\Foundation\Validation\ValidationException instead of throwing an instance of Illuminate\Http\Exception\HttpResponseException. This is unlikely to affect your application unless you were manually catching this exception.


The following features are deprecated in 5.2 and will be removed in the 5.3 release in June 2016:

Upgrading To 5.1.11

Laravel 5.1.11 includes support for authorization and policies. Incorporating these new features into your existing Laravel 5.1 applications is simple.

{note} These upgrades are optional, and ignoring them will not affect your application.

Create The Policies Directory

First, create an empty app/Policies directory within your application.

Create / Register The AuthServiceProvider & Gate Facade

Create a AuthServiceProvider within your app/Providers directory. You may copy the contents of the default provider from GitHub. Remember to change the provider's namespace if your application is using a custom namespace. After creating the provider, be sure to register it in your app.php configuration file's providers array.

Also, you should register the Gate facade in your app.php configuration file's aliases array:

'Gate' => Illuminate\Support\Facades\Gate::class,

Update The User Model

Secondly, use the Illuminate\Foundation\Auth\Access\Authorizable trait and Illuminate\Contracts\Auth\Access\Authorizable contract on your App\User model:


namespace App;

use Illuminate\Auth\Authenticatable;
use Illuminate\Database\Eloquent\Model;
use Illuminate\Auth\Passwords\CanResetPassword;
use Illuminate\Foundation\Auth\Access\Authorizable;
use Illuminate\Contracts\Auth\Authenticatable as AuthenticatableContract;
use Illuminate\Contracts\Auth\Access\Authorizable as AuthorizableContract;
use Illuminate\Contracts\Auth\CanResetPassword as CanResetPasswordContract;

class User extends Model implements AuthenticatableContract,
    use Authenticatable, Authorizable, CanResetPassword;

Update The Base Controller

Next, update your base App\Http\Controllers\Controller controller to use the Illuminate\Foundation\Auth\Access\AuthorizesRequests trait:


namespace App\Http\Controllers;

use Illuminate\Foundation\Bus\DispatchesJobs;
use Illuminate\Routing\Controller as BaseController;
use Illuminate\Foundation\Validation\ValidatesRequests;
use Illuminate\Foundation\Auth\Access\AuthorizesRequests;

abstract class Controller extends BaseController
    use AuthorizesRequests, DispatchesJobs, ValidatesRequests;

Upgrading To 5.1.0

Estimated Upgrade Time: Less Than 1 Hour

Update bootstrap/autoload.php

Update the $compiledPath variable in bootstrap/autoload.php to the following:

$compiledPath = __DIR__.'/cache/compiled.php';

Create bootstrap/cache Directory

Within your bootstrap directory, create a cache directory (bootstrap/cache). Place a .gitignore file in this directory with the following contents:


This directory should be writable, and will be used by the framework to store temporary optimization files like compiled.php, routes.php, config.php, and services.json.

Add BroadcastServiceProvider Provider

Within your config/app.php configuration file, add Illuminate\Broadcasting\BroadcastServiceProvider to the providers array.


If you are using the provided AuthController which uses the AuthenticatesAndRegistersUsers trait, you will need to make a few changes to how new users are validated and created.

First, you no longer need to pass the Guard and Registrar instances to the base constructor. You can remove these dependencies entirely from your controller's constructor.

Secondly, the App\Services\Registrar class used in Laravel 5.0 is no longer needed. You can simply copy and paste your validator and create method from this class directly into your AuthController. No other changes should need to be made to these methods; however, you should be sure to import the Validator facade and your User model at the top of your AuthController.

Password Controller

The included PasswordController no longer requires any dependencies in its constructor. You may remove both of the dependencies that were required under 5.0.


If you are overriding the formatValidationErrors method on your base controller class, you should now type-hint the Illuminate\Contracts\Validation\Validator contract instead of the concrete Illuminate\Validation\Validator instance.

Likewise, if you are overriding the formatErrors method on the base form request class, you should now type-hint Illuminate\Contracts\Validation\Validator contract instead of the concrete Illuminate\Validation\Validator instance.


If you have any migrations that rename a column or any migrations that drop columns from a SQLite database, you will need to add the doctrine/dbal dependency to your composer.json file and run the composer update command in your terminal to install the library.


The create Method

Eloquent's create method can now be called without any parameters. If you are overriding the create method in your own models, set the default value of the $attributes parameter to an array:

public static function create(array $attributes = [])
    // Your custom implementation

The find Method

If you are overriding the find method in your own models and calling parent::find() within your custom method, you should now change it to call the find method on the Eloquent query builder:

public static function find($id, $columns = ['*'])
    $model = static::query()->find($id, $columns);

    // ...

    return $model;

The lists Method

The lists method now returns a Collection instance instead of a plain array for Eloquent queries. If you would like to convert the Collection into a plain array, use the all method:


Be aware that the Query Builder lists method still returns an array.

Date Formatting

Previously, the storage format for Eloquent date fields could be modified by overriding the getDateFormat method on your model. This is still possible; however, for convenience you may simply specify a $dateFormat property on the model instead of overriding the method.

The date format is also now applied when serializing a model to an array or JSON. This may change the format of your JSON serialized date fields when migrating from Laravel 5.0 to 5.1. To set a specific date format for serialized models, you may override the serializeDate(DateTime $date) method on your model. This method allows you to have granular control over the formatting of serialized Eloquent date fields without changing their storage format.

The Collection Class

The sort Method

The sort method now returns a fresh collection instance instead of modifying the existing collection:

$collection = $collection->sort($callback);

The sortBy Method

The sortBy method now returns a fresh collection instance instead of modifying the existing collection:

$collection = $collection->sortBy('name');

The groupBy Method

The groupBy method now returns Collection instances for each item in the parent Collection. If you would like to convert all of the items back to plain arrays, you may map over them:

    return $item->all();

The lists Method

The lists method now returns a Collection instance instead of a plain array. If you would like to convert the Collection into a plain array, use the all method:


Commands & Handlers

The app/Commands directory has been renamed to app/Jobs. However, you are not required to move all of your commands to the new location, and you may continue using the make:command and handler:command Artisan commands to generate your classes.

Likewise, the app/Handlers directory has been renamed to app/Listeners and now only contains event listeners. However, you are not required to move or rename your existing command and event handlers, and you may continue to use the handler:event command to generate event handlers.

By providing backwards compatibility for the Laravel 5.0 folder structure, you may upgrade your applications to Laravel 5.1 and slowly upgrade your events and commands to their new locations when it is convenient for you or your team.


The createMatcher, createOpenMatcher, and createPlainMatcher methods have been removed from the Blade compiler. Use the new directive method to create custom directives for Blade in Laravel 5.1. Consult the extending blade documentation for more information.


Add the protected $baseUrl property to the tests/TestCase.php file:

protected $baseUrl = 'http://localhost';

Translation Files

The default directory for published language files for vendor packages has been moved. Move any vendor package language files from resources/lang/packages/{locale}/{namespace} to resources/lang/vendor/{namespace}/{locale} directory. For example, Acme/Anvil package's acme/anvil::foo namespaced English language file would be moved from resources/lang/packages/en/acme/anvil/foo.php to resources/lang/vendor/acme/anvil/en/foo.php.

Amazon Web Services SDK

If you are using the AWS SQS queue driver or the AWS SES e-mail driver, you should update your installed AWS PHP SDK to version 3.0.

If you are using the Amazon S3 filesystem driver, you will need to update the corresponding Flysystem package via Composer:


The following Laravel features have been deprecated and will be removed entirely with the release of Laravel 5.2 in December 2015:

  • Route filters have been deprecated in preference of middleware.
  • The Illuminate\Contracts\Routing\Middleware contract has been deprecated. No contract is required on your middleware. In addition, the TerminableMiddleware contract has also been deprecated. Instead of implementing the interface, simply define a terminate method on your middleware.
  • The Illuminate\Contracts\Queue\ShouldBeQueued contract has been deprecated in favor of Illuminate\Contracts\Queue\ShouldQueue.
  • Iron.io "push queues" have been deprecated in favor of typical Iron.io queues and queue listeners.
  • The Illuminate\Foundation\Bus\DispatchesCommands trait has been deprecated and renamed to Illuminate\Foundation\Bus\DispatchesJobs.
  • Illuminate\Container\BindingResolutionException has been moved to Illuminate\Contracts\Container\BindingResolutionException.
  • The service container's bindShared method has been deprecated in favor of the singleton method.
  • The Eloquent and query builder pluck method has been deprecated and renamed to value.
  • The collection fetch method has been deprecated in favor of the pluck method.
  • The array_fetch helper has been deprecated in favor of the array_pluck method.

Upgrading To 5.0.16

In your bootstrap/autoload.php file, update the $compiledPath variable to:

$compiledPath = __DIR__.'/../vendor/compiled.php';

Service Providers

The App\Providers\BusServiceProvider may be removed from your service provider list in your app.php configuration file.

The App\Providers\ConfigServiceProvider may be removed from your service provider list in your app.php configuration file.

Upgrading To 5.0 From 4.2

Fresh Install, Then Migrate

The recommended method of upgrading is to create a new Laravel 5.0 install and then to copy your 4.2 site's unique application files into the new application. This would include controllers, routes, Eloquent models, Artisan commands, assets, and other code specific files to your application.

To start, install a new Laravel 5.0 application into a fresh directory in your local environment. Do not install any versions newer than 5.0 yet, since we need to complete the migration steps for 5.0 first. We'll discuss each piece of the migration process in further detail below.

Composer Dependencies & Packages

Don't forget to copy any additional Composer dependencies into your 5.0 application. This includes third-party code such as SDKs.

Some Laravel-specific packages may not be compatible with Laravel 5 on initial release. Check with your package's maintainer to determine the proper version of the package for Laravel 5. Once you have added any additional Composer dependencies your application needs, run composer update.


By default, Laravel 4 applications did not utilize namespacing within your application code. So, for example, all Eloquent models and controllers simply lived in the "global" namespace. For a quicker migration, you can simply leave these classes in the global namespace in Laravel 5 as well.


Migrating Environment Variables

Copy the new .env.example file to .env, which is the 5.0 equivalent of the old .env.php file. Set any appropriate values there, like your APP_ENV and APP_KEY (your encryption key), your database credentials, and your cache and session drivers.

Additionally, copy any custom values you had in your old .env.php file and place them in both .env (the real value for your local environment) and .env.example (a sample instructional value for other team members).

For more information on environment configuration, view the full documentation.

{note} You will need to place the appropriate .env file and values on your production server before deploying your Laravel 5 application.

Configuration Files

Laravel 5.0 no longer uses app/config/{environmentName}/ directories to provide specific configuration files for a given environment. Instead, move any configuration values that vary by environment into .env, and then access them in your configuration files using env('key', 'default value'). You will see examples of this in the config/database.php configuration file.

Set the config files in the config/ directory to represent either the values that are consistent across all of your environments, or set them to use env() to load values that vary by environment.

Remember, if you add more keys to .env file, add sample values to the .env.example file as well. This will help your other team members create their own .env files.


Copy and paste your old routes.php file into your new app/Http/routes.php.


Next, move all of your controllers into the app/Http/Controllers directory. Since we are not going to migrate to full namespacing in this guide, add the app/Http/Controllers directory to the classmap directive of your composer.json file. Next, you can remove the namespace from the abstract app/Http/Controllers/Controller.php base class. Verify that your migrated controllers are extending this base class.

In your app/Providers/RouteServiceProvider.php file, set the namespace property to null.

Route Filters

Copy your filter bindings from app/filters.php and place them into the boot() method of app/Providers/RouteServiceProvider.php. Add use Illuminate\Support\Facades\Route; in the app/Providers/RouteServiceProvider.php in order to continue using the Route Facade.

You do not need to move over any of the default Laravel 4.0 filters such as auth and csrf; they're all here, but as middleware. Edit any routes or controllers that reference the old default filters (e.g. ['before' => 'auth']) and change them to reference the new middleware (e.g. ['middleware' => 'auth'].)

Filters are not removed in Laravel 5. You can still bind and use your own custom filters using before and after.

Global CSRF

By default, CSRF protection is enabled on all routes. If you'd like to disable this, or only manually enable it on certain routes, remove this line from App\Http\Kernel's middleware array:


If you want to use it elsewhere, add this line to $routeMiddleware:

'csrf' => 'App\Http\Middleware\VerifyCsrfToken',

Now you can add the middleware to individual routes / controllers using ['middleware' => 'csrf'] on the route. For more information on middleware, consult the full documentation.

Eloquent Models

Feel free to create a new app/Models directory to house your Eloquent models. Again, add this directory to the classmap directive of your composer.json file.

Update any models using SoftDeletingTrait to use Illuminate\Database\Eloquent\SoftDeletes.

Eloquent Caching

Eloquent no longer provides the remember method for caching queries. You now are responsible for caching your queries manually using the Cache::remember function. For more information on caching, consult the full documentation.

User Authentication Model

To upgrade your User model for Laravel 5's authentication system, follow these instructions:

Delete the following from your use block:

use Illuminate\Auth\UserInterface;
use Illuminate\Auth\Reminders\RemindableInterface;

Add the following to your use block:

use Illuminate\Auth\Authenticatable;
use Illuminate\Auth\Passwords\CanResetPassword;
use Illuminate\Contracts\Auth\Authenticatable as AuthenticatableContract;
use Illuminate\Contracts\Auth\CanResetPassword as CanResetPasswordContract;

Remove the UserInterface and RemindableInterface interfaces.

Mark the class as implementing the following interfaces:

implements AuthenticatableContract, CanResetPasswordContract

Include the following traits within the class declaration:

use Authenticatable, CanResetPassword;

If you used them, remove Illuminate\Auth\Reminders\RemindableTrait and Illuminate\Auth\UserTrait from your use block and your class declaration.

Cashier User Changes

The name of the trait and interface used by Laravel Cashier has changed. Instead of using BillableTrait, use the Laravel\Cashier\Billable trait. And, instead of Laravel\Cashier\BillableInterface implement the Laravel\Cashier\Contracts\Billable interface instead. No other method changes are required.

Artisan Commands

Move all of your command classes from your old app/commands directory to the new app/Console/Commands directory. Next, add the app/Console/Commands directory to the classmap directive of your composer.json file.

Then, copy your list of Artisan commands from start/artisan.php into the commands array of the app/Console/Kernel.php file.

Database Migrations & Seeds

Delete the two migrations included with Laravel 5.0, since you should already have the users table in your database.

Move all of your migration classes from the old app/database/migrations directory to the new database/migrations. All of your seeds should be moved from app/database/seeds to database/seeds.

Global IoC Bindings

If you have any service container bindings in start/global.php, move them all to the register method of the app/Providers/AppServiceProvider.php file. You may need to import the App facade.

Optionally, you may break these bindings up into separate service providers by category.


Move your views from app/views to the new resources/views directory.

Blade Tag Changes

For better security by default, Laravel 5.0 escapes all output from both the {{ }} and {{{ }}} Blade directives. A new {!! !!} directive has been introduced to display raw, unescaped output. The most secure option when upgrading your application is to only use the new {!! !!} directive when you are certain that it is safe to display raw output.

However, if you must use the old Blade syntax, add the following lines at the bottom of AppServiceProvider@register:

\Blade::setRawTags('{{', '}}');
\Blade::setContentTags('{{{', '}}}');
\Blade::setEscapedContentTags('{{{', '}}}');

This should not be done lightly, and may make your application more vulnerable to XSS exploits. Also, comments with {{-- will no longer work.

Translation Files

Move your language files from app/lang to the new resources/lang directory.

Public Directory

Copy your application's public assets from your 4.2 application's public directory to your new application's public directory. Be sure to keep the 5.0 version of index.php.


Move your tests from app/tests to the new tests directory.

Misc. Files

Copy in any other files in your project. For example, .scrutinizer.yml, bower.json and other similar tooling configuration files.

You may move your Sass, Less, or CoffeeScript to any location you wish. The resources/assets directory could be a good default location.

Form & HTML Helpers

If you're using Form or HTML helpers, you will see an error stating class 'Form' not found or class 'Html' not found. The Form and HTML helpers have been deprecated in Laravel 5.0; however, there are community-driven replacements such as those maintained by the Laravel Collective.

For example, you may add "laravelcollective/html": "~5.0" to your composer.json file's require section.

You'll also need to add the Form and HTML facades and service provider. Edit config/app.php and add this line to the 'providers' array:


Next, add these lines to the 'aliases' array:

'Form' => 'Collective\Html\FormFacade',
'Html' => 'Collective\Html\HtmlFacade',


If your application code was injecting Illuminate\Cache\CacheManager to get a non-Facade version of Laravel's cache, inject Illuminate\Contracts\Cache\Repository instead.


Replace any calls to $paginator->links() with $paginator->render().

Replace any calls to $paginator->getFrom() and $paginator->getTo() with $paginator->firstItem() and $paginator->lastItem() respectively.

Remove the "get" prefix from calls to $paginator->getPerPage(), $paginator->getCurrentPage(), $paginator->getLastPage() and $paginator->getTotal() (e.g. $paginator->perPage()).

Beanstalk Queuing

Laravel 5.0 now requires "pda/pheanstalk": "~3.0" instead of "pda/pheanstalk": "~2.1".


The Remote component has been deprecated.


The Workbench component has been deprecated.

Upgrading To 4.2 From 4.1

PHP 5.4+

Laravel 4.2 requires PHP 5.4.0 or greater.

Encryption Defaults

Add a new cipher option in your app/config/app.php configuration file. The value of this option should be MCRYPT_RIJNDAEL_256.

'cipher' => MCRYPT_RIJNDAEL_256

This setting may be used to control the default cipher used by the Laravel encryption facilities.

{note} In Laravel 4.2, the default cipher is MCRYPT_RIJNDAEL_128 (AES), which is considered to be the most secure cipher. Changing the cipher back to MCRYPT_RIJNDAEL_256 is required to decrypt cookies/values that were encrypted in Laravel <= 4.1

Soft Deleting Models Now Use Traits

If you are using soft deleting models, the softDeletes property has been removed. You must now use the SoftDeletingTrait like so:

use Illuminate\Database\Eloquent\SoftDeletingTrait;

class User extends Eloquent
    use SoftDeletingTrait;

You must also manually add the deleted_at column to your dates property:

class User extends Eloquent
    use SoftDeletingTrait;

    protected $dates = ['deleted_at'];

The API for all soft delete operations remains the same.

{note} The SoftDeletingTrait can not be applied on a base model. It must be used on an actual model class.

View / Pagination Environment Renamed

If you are directly referencing the Illuminate\View\Environment class or Illuminate\Pagination\Environment class, update your code to reference Illuminate\View\Factory and Illuminate\Pagination\Factory instead. These two classes have been renamed to better reflect their function.

Additional Parameter On Pagination Presenter

If you are extending the Illuminate\Pagination\Presenter class, the abstract method getPageLinkWrapper signature has changed to add the rel argument:

abstract public function getPageLinkWrapper($url, $page, $rel = null);

Iron.Io Queue Encryption

If you are using the Iron.io queue driver, you will need to add a new encrypt option to your queue configuration file:

'encrypt' => true

Upgrading To 4.1.29 From <= 4.1.x

Laravel 4.1.29 improves the column quoting for all database drivers. This protects your application from some mass assignment vulnerabilities when not using the fillable property on models. If you are using the fillable property on your models to protect against mass assignment, your application is not vulnerable. However, if you are using guarded and are passing a user controlled array into an "update" or "save" type function, you should upgrade to 4.1.29 immediately as your application may be at risk of mass assignment.

To upgrade to Laravel 4.1.29, simply composer update. No breaking changes are introduced in this release.

Upgrading To 4.1.26 From <= 4.1.25

Laravel 4.1.26 introduces security improvements for "remember me" cookies. Before this update, if a remember cookie was hijacked by another malicious user, the cookie would remain valid for a long period of time, even after the true owner of the account reset their password, logged out, etc.

This change requires the addition of a new remember_token column to your users (or equivalent) database table. After this change, a fresh token will be assigned to the user each time they login to your application. The token will also be refreshed when the user logs out of the application. The implications of this change are: if a "remember me" cookie is hijacked, simply logging out of the application will invalidate the cookie.

Upgrade Path

First, add a new, nullable remember_token of VARCHAR(100), TEXT, or equivalent to your users table.

Next, if you are using the Eloquent authentication driver, update your User class with the following three methods:

public function getRememberToken()
    return $this->remember_token;

public function setRememberToken($value)
    $this->remember_token = $value;

public function getRememberTokenName()
    return 'remember_token';

{note} All existing "remember me" sessions will be invalidated by this change, so all users will be forced to re-authenticate with your application.

Package Maintainers

Two new methods were added to the Illuminate\Auth\UserProviderInterface interface. Sample implementations may be found in the default drivers:

public function retrieveByToken($identifier, $token);

public function updateRememberToken(UserInterface $user, $token);

The Illuminate\Auth\UserInterface also received the three new methods described in the "Upgrade Path".

Upgrading To 4.1 From 4.0

Upgrading Your Composer Dependency

To upgrade your application to Laravel 4.1, change your laravel/framework version to 4.1.* in your composer.json file.

Replacing Files

Replace your public/index.php file with this fresh copy from the repository.

Replace your artisan file with this fresh copy from the repository.

Adding Configuration Files & Options

Update your aliases and providers arrays in your app/config/app.php configuration file. The updated values for these arrays can be found in this file. Be sure to add your custom and package service providers / aliases back to the arrays.

Add the new app/config/remote.php file from the repository.

Add the new expire_on_close configuration option to your app/config/session.php file. The default value should be false.

Add the new failed configuration section to your app/config/queue.php file. Here are the default values for the section:

'failed' => [
    'database' => 'mysql', 'table' => 'failed_jobs',

(Optional) Update the pagination configuration option in your app/config/view.php file to pagination::slider-3.

Controller Updates

If app/controllers/BaseController.php has a use statement at the top, change use Illuminate\Routing\Controllers\Controller; to use Illuminate\Routing\Controller;.

Password Reminders Updates

Password reminders have been overhauled for greater flexibility. You may examine the new stub controller by running the php artisan auth:reminders-controller Artisan command. You may also browse the updated documentation and update your application accordingly.

Update your app/lang/en/reminders.php language file to match this updated file.

Environment Detection Updates

For security reasons, URL domains may no longer be used to detect your application environment. These values are easily spoofable and allow attackers to modify the environment for a request. You should convert your environment detection to use machine host names (hostname command on Mac, Linux, and Windows).

Simpler Log Files

Laravel now generates a single log file: app/storage/logs/laravel.log. However, you may still configure this behavior in your app/start/global.php file.

Removing Redirect Trailing Slash

In your bootstrap/start.php file, remove the call to $app->redirectIfTrailingSlash(). This method is no longer needed as this functionality is now handled by the .htaccess file included with the framework.

Next, replace your Apache .htaccess file with this new one that handles trailing slashes.

Current Route Access

The current route is now accessed via Route::current() instead of Route::getCurrentRoute().

Composer Update

Once you have completed the changes above, you can run the composer update function to update your core application files! If you receive class load errors, try running the update command with the --no-scripts option enabled like so: composer update --no-scripts.

Wildcard Event Listeners

The wildcard event listeners no longer append the event to your handler functions parameters. If you require finding the event that was fired you should use Event::firing().